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Brigitte Anne-Marie Bardot[1][2] (Template:IPAc-en; Template:IPA-fr; born 28 September 1934) is a former French fashion model, actress, singer and animal rights activist. She was one of the best-known sex symbols of the 1960s. Starting in 1969, Bardot's features became the official face of Marianne (who had previously been anonymous) to represent the liberty of France.[3]

Bardot was an aspiring ballet dancer in early life. She started her acting career in 1952 and, after appearing in 16 films, became world-famous due to her role in her then-husband Roger Vadim's controversial film And God Created Woman. She later starred in Jean-Luc Godard's 1963 film Le Mépris. Bardot was nominated for a BAFTA Award for Best Foreign Actress for her role in Louis Malle's 1965 film Viva Maria!. Bardot caught the attention of French intellectuals. She was the subject of Simone de Beauvoir's 1959 essay, The Lolita Syndrome, which described Bardot as a "locomotive of women's history" and built upon existentialist themes to declare her the first and most liberated woman of post-war France.[4]

Bardot retired from the entertainment industry in 1973. During her career in show business, Bardot starred in 47 films, performed in numerous musical shows, and recorded 80 songs. She was awarded the Legion of Honour in 1985, but refused to receive it.[5] After her retirement, Bardot established herself as an animal rights activist. During the 1990s she generated controversy by criticizing immigration, Islamization and Islam in France, and has been fined five times for "inciting racial hatred".[6][7]

Early lifeEdit

Brigitte Bardot was born in Paris to Anne-Marie 'Toty' Mucel (1912–1978) and Louis 'Pilou' Bardot (1896–1975). Her father had an engineering degree and worked with his own father (Charles Bardot) in the family business. Toty was sixteen years younger and they married in 1933. Bardot grew up in a middle-class observant Roman Catholic family.[8] Brigitte's mother enrolled Brigitte and her sister Marie-Jeanne (born 5 May 1938) in dance. Marie-Jeanne eventually gave up dancing lessons to complete her education, whereas Brigitte decided to concentrate on a ballet career.

In 1947, Bardot was accepted to the Conservatoire de Paris, and for three years she attended the ballet classes of Russian choreographer Boris Knyazev. (One of her classmates was Leslie Caron; fellow ballerinas nicknamed Bardot: Bichette [Little Doe]).[9]

At the invitation of an acquaintance of her mother, she modelled in a fashion show in 1949. In the same year, she modelled for a fashion magazine "Jardin des Modes" managed by journalist Hélène Lazareff. Aged 15, she appeared on an 8 March 1950 cover of ELLE[10] and was noticed by a young film director, Roger Vadim, while babysitting. He showed an issue of the magazine to director and screenwriter Marc Allégret who offered Bardot the opportunity to audition for "Les lauriers sont coupés" thereafter. Although Bardot got the role, the film was cancelled, but it made her consider becoming an actress. Moreover, her acquaintance with Vadim, who attended the audition, influenced her further life and career.[11][12]

CareerEdit

Although the European film industry was then in its ascendancy, Bardot was one of the few European actresses to have the mass media's attention in the United States, an interest which she did not reciprocate by rarely, if ever, going to Hollywood. She debuted in a 1952 comedy film Le Trou Normand (English title: Crazy for Love). From 1952-56, she appeared in seventeen films; in 1953 she played a role in Jean Anouilh's stageplay L'Invitation au château (Invitation to the Castle). She received media attention when she attended the Cannes Film Festival in April 1953.[12]

Her films of the early and mid 1950s were generally lightweight romantic dramas, some historical, in which she was cast as ingénue or siren, often in varying states of undress. She played bit parts in three English-language films, the British comedy Doctor at Sea (1955) with Dirk Bogarde, Helen of Troy (1954), in which she was understudy for the title role but appears only as Helen's handmaid, and Act of Love (1954) with Kirk Douglas. Her French-language films were dubbed for international release.

Roger Vadim was not content with this light fare. The New Wave of French and Italian art directors and their stars were riding high internationally, and he felt Bardot was being undersold. Looking for something more like an art film to push her as a serious actress, he showcased her in And God Created Woman (1956) with Jean-Louis Trintignant. The film, about an immoral teenager in a respectable small-town setting, was an international success.[12]

In Bardot's early career, professional photographer Sam Lévin's photos contributed to her image of sensuality. One photo shows Brigitte from behind, dressed in a white corset. British photographer Cornel Lucas made iconic images of Bardot in the 1950s and 1960s that have become representative of her public persona. She divorced Vadim in 1957 and in 1959 married actor Jacques Charrier, with whom she starred in Babette Goes to War. The paparazzi preyed upon her marriage, while she and her husband clashed over the direction of her career.

Vie privée (1962), directed by Louis Malle has more than an element of her life story in it.Template:Citation needed The scene in which, returning to her apartment, Bardot's character is harangued in the elevator by a middle-aged cleaning lady calling her offensive names, was based on an actual incident, and is a resonant image of celebrity in the mid-20th century.Template:Citation needed Bardot was awarded a David di Donatello Award for Best Foreign actress for the role.[13]

In May 1958, Bardot withdrew to the seclusion of Southern France where she had bought the house La Madrague in Saint-Tropez. In 1963, she starred in Jean-Luc Godard's critically acclaimed film Le Mépris. Bardot was featured in many other films along with notable actors such as Alain Delon (Famous Love Affairs; Spirits of the Dead); Jean Gabin (In Case of Adversity); Sean Connery (Shalako); Jean Marais (Royal Affairs in Versailles; School for Love); Lino Ventura (Rum Runners); Annie Girardot (The Novices); Claudia Cardinale (The Legend of Frenchie King); Jeanne Moreau (Viva Maria!); Jane Birkin (Don Juan, or If Don Juan Were a Woman).

In 1973, Bardot announced that she was retiring from acting as "a way to get out elegantly".[14]

She participated in various musical shows and recorded many popular songs in the 1960s and 1970s, mostly in collaboration with Serge Gainsbourg, Bob Zagury and Sacha Distel, including "Harley Davidson"; "Je Me Donne A Qui Me Plaît"; "Bubble gum"; "Contact"; "Je Reviendrais Toujours Vers Toi"; "L'Appareil À Sous"; "La Madrague"; "On Déménage"; "Sidonie"; "Tu Veux, Ou Tu Veux Pas?"; "Le Soleil De Ma Vie" (the cover of Stevie Wonder's "You Are the Sunshine of My Life"); and the notorious "Je t'aime... moi non plus".

Bardot pleaded with Gainsbourg not to release this duet and he complied with her wishes; the following year, he re-recorded a version with British-born model and actress Jane Birkin, which became a massive hit all over Europe. The version with Bardot was issued in 1986 and became a popular download hit in 2006 when Universal Records made its back catalogue available to purchase online, with this version of the song ranking as the third most popular download.[15]

Personal lifeEdit

File:BBardo St Trop 1963t.jpg
On 21 December 1952, aged 18, Bardot was married to director Roger Vadim. In order to receive permission from Bardot's parents to marry her, Vadim, originally a Russian Orthodox Christian, was urged to convert to Catholicism, although it is not clear if he ever did so. They divorced five years later, but remained friends and collaborated in later work. Bardot had an affair with her And God Created Woman co-star Jean-Louis Trintignant (married at the time to actress Stéphane Audran) before her divorce from Vadim.[11][12] The two lived together for about two years. Their relationship was complicated by Trintignant's frequent absence due to military service and Bardot's affair with musician Gilbert Bécaud, and they eventually separated.[11]

The 9 February 1958 edition of the Los Angeles Times reported on the front page that Bardot was recovering in Italy from a reported nervous breakdown. A suicide attempt with sleeping pills two days earlier was denied by her public relations manager.[16]

FamilyEdit

On 18 June 1959, she married actor Jacques Charrier, by whom she had her only child, a son, Nicolas-Jacques Charrier (born 11 January 1960). After she and Charrier divorced in 1962, Nicolas was raised in the Charrier family and did not maintain close contact with Bardot until his adulthood.[11]

Bardot's other husbands were German millionaire playboy Gunter Sachs (14 July 1966  – 1 October 1969) and Bernard d'Ormale (16 August 1992 – present).[11][12][17] In the late 1950s she shared an exchange which was called "la croisée de deux sillages" ("the crossing of two wakes") with actor and true-crime author John Gilmore, then an actor in France who was working on a New Wave film with Jean Seberg. Gilmore told Paris Match: "I felt a beautiful warmth with Bardot but found it difficult to discuss things in any depth whatsoever."

In the 1970s, Bardot lived with sculptor Miroslav Brozek and posed for some of his sculptures. In 1974, Bardot appeared in a nude photo shoot in Playboy magazine, which celebrated her 40th birthday.

Animal welfare activismEdit

In 1973, before her 39th birthday, Bardot announced her retirement. After appearing in more than forty motion pictures and recording several music albums, most notably with Serge Gainsbourg, she chose to use her fame to promote animal rights.

In 1986, she established the Brigitte Bardot Foundation for the Welfare and Protection of Animals.[18] She became a vegetarian[19] and raised three million francs to fund the foundation by auctioning off jewellery and many personal belongings.[18] Today she is a strong animal rights activist and a major opponent of the consumption of horse meat. In support of animal protection, she condemned seal hunting in Canada during a visit to that country with Paul Watson of the Sea Shepherd Conservation Society.[20] She sought to discuss the issue with Stephen Harper, Prime Minister of Canada, but her request for a meeting was reportedly denied.Template:Citation needed On 25 May 2011 the Sea Shepherd Conservation Society renamed its fast interceptor vessel, MV Gojira, as MV Brigitte Bardot in appreciation of her support.[21]

She once had a neighbour's donkey castrated while looking after it, on the grounds of its "sexual harassment" of her own donkey and mare, for which she was taken to court by the donkey's owner in 1989.[22][23] Bardot wrote a 1999 letter to Chinese President Jiang Zemin, published in French magazine VSD, in which she accused the Chinese of "torturing bears and killing the world's last tigers and rhinos to make aphrodisiacs".[24]

She has donated more than $140,000 over two years for a mass sterilization and adoption program for Bucharest's stray dogs, estimated to number 300,000.[25] She is planning to house many of these stray animals in a new animal rescue facility that she is having built on her property.

In August 2010, Bardot addressed a letter to the Queen of Denmark, Margrethe II of Denmark, appealing for the sovereign to halt the killing of dolphins in the Faroe Islands. In the letter, Bardot describes the activity as a "macabre spectacle" that "is a shame for Denmark and the Faroe Islands ... This is not a hunt but a mass slaughter ... an outmoded tradition that has no acceptable justification in today's world".[26]

On 22 April 2011, French culture minister Frédéric Mitterrand officially inscribed bullfighting on a list enumerating the country's cultural heritage, a decision which Bardot is currently publicly contesting. "French culture is a culture of enlightenment and has nothing to do with bloody things like bullfighting," she wrote.[27]

Politics and legal issuesEdit

File:BrigitteBardot.jpg

Bardot expressed support for President Charles de Gaulle in the 1960s.[11][28] Her husband Bernard d'Ormale is a former adviser of the Front National, the main nationalist party in France.[12][28][4] Brigitte Bardot is supporting Front National candidate Marine Le Pen in the 2012 French Presidential Election.[29]

In her 1999 book Le Carré de Pluton ("Pluto's Square"), Bardot criticizes the procedure used in the ritual slaughter of sheep during the Muslim festival of Eid al-Adha. Additionally, in a section in the book entitled, "Open Letter to My Lost France", Bardot writes that "my country, France, my homeland, my land is again invaded by an overpopulation of foreigners, especially Muslims". For this comment, a French court fined her 30,000 francs in June 2000. She had been fined in 1997 for the original publication of this open letter in Le Figaro and again 1998 for making similar remarks.[24][30][31]

In her 2003 book, Un cri dans le silence ("A Scream in the Silence"), she warned of an “Islamicization of France”, and said of Muslim immigration:Template:Quote In May 2003 the Movement Against Racism and for Friendship between Peoples (MRAP) announced they would sue Bardot for the comments.Template:Citation needed The "Ligue des droits de l'homme" (Human Rights League) announced they were considering similar legal proceedings.[31]

In the book, she also made comparisons of her close gay friends to today's homosexuals, who "jiggle their bottoms, put their little fingers in the air and with their little castrato voices moan about what those ghastly heteros put them through" and that some contemporary homosexuals behave like "fairground freaks".[32] In her own defence, Bardot wrote in a letter to a French gay magazine: "Apart from my husband—who maybe will cross over one day as well—I am entirely surrounded by homos. For years, they have been my support, my friends, my adopted children, my confidants."[33] Bardot's book was also against miscegenation; made attacks on modern art, which Bardot equated with "shit"; drew similarities between French politicians and weather vanes; and compared her own beliefs with previous generations who had "given their lives to push out invaders".[34]

On 10 June 2004, Bardot was again convicted by a French court for "inciting racial hatred" and fined €5,000, the fourth such conviction and fine from a French court.[35] Bardot denied the racial hatred charge and apologized in court, saying: "I never knowingly wanted to hurt anybody. It is not in my character."[36]

In 2008, Bardot was convicted of inciting racial/religious hatred in relation to a letter she wrote, a copy of which she sent to Nicolas Sarkozy when he was Interior Minister of France. The letter stated her objections to Muslims in France ritually slaughtering sheep by slitting their throats without anesthetizing them first but also said, in reference to Muslims, that she was "fed up with being under the thumb of this population which is destroying us, destroying our country and imposing its habits". The trial[37] concluded on 3 June 2008, with a conviction and fine of €15,000, the largest of her fines to date. The prosecutor stated that she was tired of charging Bardot with offences related to racial hatred.[6]

During the 2008 United States presidential election, she branded the Republican Party vice-presidential candidate Sarah Palin as "stupid" and a "disgrace to women". She criticized the former governor of Alaska for her stance on global warming and gun control. She was also offended by Palin's support for Arctic oil exploration and for her lack of consideration in protecting polar bears.[38]

On 13 August 2010, Bardot lashed out at director Kyle Newman regarding his plans to make a biographical film on her life. Her response was, "Wait until I'm dead before you make a movie about my life!". Bardot warned Newman that if the project progresses "sparks will fly".[39]

InfluenceEdit

File:Bb buzios.jpg

In fashion, the Bardot neckline (a wide open neck that exposes both shoulders) is named after her. Bardot popularized this style which is especially used for knitted sweaters or jumpers although it is also used for other tops and dresses.

Bardot is recognized for popularizing bikini swimwear in early films such as Manina (Woman without a Veil, 1952), in her appearances at Cannes and in many photo shoots.

Bardot also brought into fashion the choucroute ("Sauerkraut") hairstyle (a sort of beehive hair style) and gingham clothes after wearing a checkered pink dress, designed by Jacques Esterel, at her wedding to Charrier.[40] She was the subject for an Andy Warhol painting.

In addition to popularizing the bikini swimming suit, Bardot has also been credited with popularizing the city of St. Tropez and the town of Armação dos Búzios in Brazil, which she visited in 1964 with her boyfriend at the time, Brazilian musician Bob Zagury.[41] A statue by Christina Motta[42] honours Brigitte Bardot in Armação dos Búzios.

Bardot was idolized by young John Lennon and Paul McCartney.[43][44] They made plans to shoot a film featuring The Beatles and Bardot, similar to A Hard Day's Night, but the plans were never fulfilled.[12] Lennon's first wife Cynthia Powell lightened her hair color to more closely resemble Bardot, while George Harrison made comparisons between Bardot and his first wife Pattie Boyd, as Cynthia wrote later in A Twist of Lennon. Lennon and Bardot met in person once, in 1968 at the Mayfair Hotel, introduced by Beatles press agent Derek Taylor; a nervous Lennon took LSD before arriving, and neither star impressed the other. (Lennon recalled in a memoir, "I was on acid, and she was on her way out.")[45] According to the liner notes of his first (self-titled) album, musician Bob Dylan dedicated the first song he ever wrote to Bardot. He also mentioned her by name in "I Shall Be Free", which appeared on his second album, The Freewheelin' Bob Dylan.

She dabbled in pop music and played the role of a glamour model. In 1965, she appeared as herself in the Hollywood production Dear Brigitte (1965) starring James Stewart, one of the few American films in which she appeared. She refused to travel to Hollywood to film her scene, requiring the needed cast and crew members to travel to film in Paris. Template:Citation needed

In 1970, sculptor Alain Gourdon used Bardot as the model for a bust of Marianne, the French national emblem. In 2007, she was named among Empire magazine's 100 Sexiest Film Stars.[46]

The first-ever official exhibition spotlighting Bardot's influence and legacy opened in Paris on 29 September 2009 – a day after her 75th birthday.[47]

FilmographyEdit

Year Film Role Notes
1952 Les dents longues Bridesmaid (The Long Teeth) Uncredited
Le trou normand Javotte Lemoine (Crazy for Love)
Manina, la fille sans voile Manina (Manina, the Girl in the Bikini)
1953 Le portrait de son père Domino (His Father's Portrait)
Un acte d'amour Mimi (Act of Love)
1954 Si Versailles m'était conté Mademoiselle de Rozille (Rotal Affairs in Versailles)
Tradita Anna (Concert of Intrigue)
1955 Le fils de Caroline chérie Pilar d'Aranda (Caroline and the Rebels)
Futures Vedettes Sophie (Sweet Sixteen)
Doctor at Sea Hélène Colbert
Les grandes manoeuvres Lucie (The Grand Maneuver)
La lumière d'en face Olivia Marceau (The Light actross the Street)
1956 Helen of Troy Andraste
Cette sacrée gamine Brigitte Latour (Mam'zelle Pigalle)
Mio figlio Nerone Poppea (Nero's Weekend)
Mademoiselle Striptease Agnès Dumont (Plucking the Daisy)
La Mariée est trop belle Chouchou (The Bride is Too Beautiful)
Et Dieu créa la femme Juliette Hardy (And God Created Woman)
1957 Une Parisienne Brigitte Laurier
1958 Les bijoutiers du clair de lune Ursula (The Night Heaven Fell)
En cas de malheur Séverine Serizy (In case of adversity)
1959 La femme et le Pantin Eva Marchand (A Woman Like Satan)
Babette s'en va-t-en guerre Babette (Babette Goes to War)
Voulez-vous danser avec moi? Virginie Dandieu (Come Dance with Me!)
1960 L'affaire d'une nuit Woman in restaurant (It Happened at Night) Cameo
La Vérité Dominique Marceau (The Truth) David di Donatello Award for Best Foreign Actress
1961 La Bride sur le cou Sophie (Please!, Not Now!)
Amours célèbres Agnès Bernauer (Famous Love Affairs)
1962 Vie privée Jill (A Very Private Affair)
Le repos du guerrier Geneviève Le Theil (Warrior's Rest)
1963 Le Mépris Camille Javal (Le Mépris)
1964 Une ravissante idiote Penelope Lightfeather (The Ravishing Idiot)
1965 Dear Brigitte Herself Cameo
Viva Maria! Maria I Nomination – BAFTA Award for Best Foreign Actress
1966 Marie Soleil Herself Cameo
1966 Masculin, féminin Actress in bistro (cameo)
1967 À coeur joie Cecile (Two Weeks in September)
1968 Histoires extraordinaires Giuseppina (Spirits of the Dead)
Shalako Countess Irina Lazaar (Courage – Let's Run)
1969 Les Femmes Clara (The Vixen)
1970 L'ours et la poupée Felicia (The Bear and the Doll)
Les Novices Agnès
1971 Boulevard du Rhum Linda Larue (Rum Runners)
Les Pétroleuses Louise (The Legend of Frenchie King)
1973 Don Juan ou Si Don Juan était une femme Jeanne (Don Juan, or If Don Juan Were a Woman)
L'histoire très bonne et très joyeuse de Colinot Trousse-Chemise Arabelle (The Edifying and Joyous Story of Colinot)

DiscographyEdit

Bardot released several albums during the 1950s and 1960s[48]

  • "Sidonie" (1961, Barclay), lyrics by Charles Cros, music by Jean-Max Rivière and Yanis Spanos, guitar by Brigitte - first song, from the film Vie privée
  • Brigitte Bardot Sings (1963, Philips) - collaborations by Serge Gainsbourg ("L'Appareil à sous", "Je me donne à qui me plaît"), Jean-Max Rivière as writer ("La Madrague") and singer ("Tiens ! C'est toi !"), Claude Bolling, Gérard Bourgeois
  • B.B. (1964, Philips) with Claude Bolling, Alain Goraguer, Gérard Bourgeois
  • "Ah ! Les p'tites femmes de Paris", duet with Jeanne Moreau in Viva Maria (1965, Philips) directed by Georges Delerue
  • Brigitte Bardot Show 67 (1967, Mercury) with Serge Gainsbourg (writes "Harley Davidson", "Comic Strip", "Contact" and "Bonnie and Clyde"), Sacha Distel, Manitas de Plata, Claude Brasseur, David Bailey
  • "Je t'aime moi non plus", duet with Serge Gainsbourg (1967, published by Philips in 1986)
  • Brigitte Bardot Show (1968, Mercury), themes by Francis Lai
  • [Burlington Cameo Brings You] Special Bardot (1968. RCA) with "The Good Life" by Sacha Distel and "Comic Strip (with Gainsbourg) in english
  • Single Duet with Serge Gainsbourg "Bonnie and Clyde"
  • "La Fille de paille"/"Je voudrais perdre la mémoire" (1969, Philips), collaboration with Gérard Lenorman
  • Tu veux ou tu veux pas (1970, Barclay) with the hit "Tu veux ou tu veux pas", French version of the brasilian "Nem Vem Que Nas Tem" directed by François Bernheim, "John and Michael", hymn to the collective love, "Mon léopard et moi", collaboration with Darry Cowl, and "Depuis que tu m'as quitté"
  • "Nue au soleil"/"C'est une bossa nova" (1970, Barclay)
  • "Chacun son homme", duet with Annie Girardot in Les Novices (1970, Barclay)
  • "Boulevard du rhum" and "Plaisir d'amour", duet with Guy Marchand, in Boulevard du rhum (1971, Barclay)
  • "Vous ma lady", duet with Laurent Vergez, and "Tu es venu mon amour" (1973, Barclay)
  • "Le Soleil de ma vie", duet with Sacha Distel
  • "Toutes les bêtes sont à aimer" (1982, Polydor)

BooksEdit

Bardot has also written five books:

  • "Noonoah: Le petit phoque blanc" (Grasset,1978)
  • "Initales B.B." (Grasset & Fasquelle,1996)
  • "Le Carré de Pluton" (Grasset & Fasquelle,1999)
  • "Un Cri Dans Le Silence" (Editions Du Rocher,2003)
  • "Pourquoi?" (Editions Du Rocher,2006)

ReferencesEdit

  1. Template:Cite web
  2. Template:Cite web
  3. Anne-Marie Sohn (teacher at the ENS-Lyon), Marianne ou l'histoire de l'idée républicaine aux XIXe et XXe siècles à la lumière de ses représentations (résumé of Maurice Agulhon's three books, Marianne au combat, Marianne au pouvoir and Les métamorphoses de Marianne) Template:Fr icon
  4. 4.0 4.1 Happy birthday, Brigitte Bardot The Guardian. 22 September 2009
  5. The Big Question: How does the French honours system work, and why has Kylie been decorated? The Independent. 8 May 2008
  6. 6.0 6.1 Template:Cite news
  7. Template:Cite news
  8. Template:Cite news
  9. Caron, Leslie, Thank Heaven, Plume Publishing (2009)
  10. Template:Cite web
  11. 11.0 11.1 11.2 11.3 11.4 11.5 Template:Cite book
  12. 12.0 12.1 12.2 12.3 12.4 12.5 12.6 Template:Cite book
  13. Awards for Brigitte Bardot info at IMDb; Retrieved 21 August 2010
  14. Template:Cite news
  15. Template:Cite news
  16. Template:Cite news
  17. Template:Cite news
  18. 18.0 18.1 Template:Cite web
  19. Follain, John (9 April 2006) Brigitte Bardot. The Times Online, Life & Style. Retrieved 2 April 2009
  20. Template:Cite web
  21. Sea Shepherd Conservation Society
  22. Template:Cite web
  23. Template:Cite web
  24. 24.0 24.1 Template:Cite news
  25. Template:Cite news
  26. Brigitte Bardot pleads to Denmark in dolphin 'slaughter' AFP. 19 August 2010
  27. Animal Lover Brigitte Bardot Lowers Her Horns as French Culture Ministry Embraces Bullfighting ARTINFO.com
  28. 28.0 28.1 Template:Cite news
  29. Bardot calls on mayors to be brave
  30. Template:Cite news
  31. 31.0 31.1 Template:Cite news
  32. Template:Cite news
  33. Template:Cite news
  34. Template:Cite news
  35. Template:Cite web
  36. Template:Cite news
  37. Template:Cite web
  38. "Brigitte Bardot calls Sarah Palin a 'disgrace to women'" The Telegraph (8 October 2008)
  39. Template:Cite web
  40. Template:Cite web
  41. Template:Cite web
  42. Template:Cite web
  43. Template:Cite book pg. 69
  44. Template:Cite book pg. 171
  45. Template:Cite book pg. 24
  46. Empireonline.com; Retrieved 19 December 2007
  47. Brigitte Bardot at 75: the exhibition, The Connexion (September 2009)
  48. Template:Cite web

LiteratureEdit

External linksEdit

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